are typically 6000-9000 words long. A maximum of eight line drawings
and eight black-and-white photographs can be included. Illustrations
should be ready to fit a page of 11.4 x
18.8 cm (4.5 x 7.4 inch) leaving room for the caption. Color
can only be printed as such when additional funding is provided by the
author. Text and illustrations are best send in soft, on a disk or as
an e-mail attachment, in an IBM/PC compatible format (text as Microsoft
WordPerfect document, illustrations as high resolution JPEG or TIFF).
All contributions should be in (American) English and in compliance with the guidelines in this style sheet. These are adapted from The Chicago Manual of Style and Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary to which reference is made for further information. Kindly refrain from using different type fonts for captions, headings, notes and tables. The deadline for submitting contributions to the Fourth Cotsen Advanced Seminar is Monday 15 November 2004. Please contact the the editors with any special requirements or additional questions.
Abbreviations should be avoided, with the exceptions noted here and under separate headings in this guide. In the text, the words 'table', 'figure', 'plate', 'chapter' and 'appendix' are spelled out and lower case.
Metric measurement units are abbreviated and without periods, English measurements are spelled out.
Use Ph.D. and M.A., but UCLA rather than U.C.L.A. and US rather that U.S. (or U.S.A.).
Long titles and terms that are mentioned frequently may be abbreviated once they have been introduced, in parenthesis, after the full name.
Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
All stylistic elements apply also to the appendixes.
Appendixes are numbered 'A', 'B', 'C' in sequence. Figures and tables appearing in appendixes are numbered in continuation of those in the chapter.
Information must include the following, in this order: author(s); date of publication; title; source of the article with pertinent journal volume, issue and page numbers; place of publication; publisher. Titles of books and journals are italic, all other titles are roman. Titles are in lower case, except for the initial capital and proper names. A subtitle also has an initial capital.
Whereas 'el al.' (not italic) may be used in the text it is not acceptable in the bibliography.
Two or more works published in the same year by the same author are distinguished by lower case letters following the date with no space.
Place of publication should be given in English.
Calendar dates are expressed as day-month-year.
22 June 2004
Months and days of the week are spelled out in the text; three letter abbreviations may be used in tables.
BC, AD, BCE, BP are capitalized with no periods, except for radiocarbon dates that are lower case when uncalibrated. AD precedes the numerals whereas BC, BCE and BP follow them.
In a range of dates the first should appear first.
100 BC-AD 150
Academic titles or honors are capitalized following a personal name, but not when used in a general sense.
A title used with a full name is capitalized and abbreviated. When used with the last name only, it is capitalized and spelled out.
With a place name, generic terms like 'lake', 'mountain', 'river', 'valley' or 'plain' are capitalized.
The Drama Plain
The plain of Drama
Names of geological and cultural periods are capitalized, including modifiers like 'Early', 'Middle' or 'Late', but not the words 'epoch', 'era', 'horizon', 'period' or 'phase'.
Early Iron Age
The Pliocene period
When an author is cited, the date should follow in parenthesis. When a publication in cited, both author and date are in parenthesis.
The site was first described by Brownberry (1976:43-52).
Other examples can be found at Gomolava (Stalio 1984a, b; Bruckner et al. 1980, 1988).
Use a colon with no space between date and page number.
Use a comma to separate works, in chronological order, by the same author. Multiple citations should be alphabetical or chronological.
Lower-case letters indicate multiple publications by one author in a single year.
A semicolon separates works by different authors.
If two authors are listed in the bibliography have the same last name, their initials should be included in the citation.
In the text, use 'et al.' (not italic) when citing a work by more than three authors. The bibliography should have the complete list of authors.
Do not use 'ibid.', 'op.cit.', 'loc.cit.', and 'idem'.
When an illustration is used from another publication, the caption should refer to the original in a separate sentence, introduced by 'After', in italics and not followed by a period.
There should be no spaces on either side of a hyphen.
Prefixes are generally joined to the base word, unless the latter is capitalized when a hyphen is used.
Hyphenate descriptive terms that include a preposition as well as fractions when spelled out.
Maximum dimensions of any illustration are 11.4 x 18.8 cm (4.5 x 7.4 inch).
Illustrations can include drawings, maps, charts, graphs and photographs. All are referred to as figures and are numbered consecutively within each chapter.
On maps, natural features (rivers, seas, mountains) should be italic.
In captions, the word 'Figure' should be spelled out and capitalized. Numbers should be in arabic numerals. The figure number is not followed by a period. A period follows the caption only if this is a complete sentence.
Illustration credits and references should be included in the caption and italicized.
Scales should be included in all illustrations. Lacking scales, include the actual size in the caption.
In general, phrases and words in languages other than English are italicized. When a foreign word is used regularly throughout the text it should be in italics first, followed by an English translation and in roman thereafter.
Avoid the use of italics for emphasis or special usage. Recast a sentence to give the needed emphasis.
When defining a technical term, the term is italicized.
Titles of books and journals are italicized.
Letters representing mathematical variables are italicized.
Genus and species are italicized, but not their derivates. Phylum, class, order and family are not italicized.
The Rosaceae family
Capitalize genus, but not species.
Do not italicize the abbreviation 'sp.' or 'spp.' in a biological name.
When used in italicized text, Linnaean names should be in roman type.
Lists of more than two items are indented and preceded by bullets. Use numbering only when procedural.
Two item lists should be run into the text, but they should not be numbered.
The metric system is preferred, English measurements may be included in parenthesis. Make sure, however, that the conversion is accurate. Measurements are in arabic numbers, except at the beginning of a sentence. Units are abbreviated with no period.
Use symbols for percent (%) and degree (°).
For square measurements, use 'x' and not 'by'.
Do not repeat unit or symbol after each number.
When citing a measurement range in sentence form, use a preposition ('to' or 'between') rather than a hyphen.
Map coordinates do not have a space between degrees, minutes and seconds.
Notes go together at the end of each chapter. Footnotes are not used.
Note numbers in the text are placed outside all punctuation, except the dash.
Use arabic numerals, except where citations require roman numerals.
Spell out numbers one through ninety-nine, except in measurements. Use digits for numbers larger than 100. It is appropriate, however, to use 'a hundred' or 'ten thousand'.
Spell out any number at the beginning of a sentence.
Spell out ordinal numbers.
Use digits for all measurements and enumeration counts.
Use all the digits of page numbers and years, except when the years are consecutive.
Fractions used alone are spelled out; decimal fractions are preceded by zero.
A colon, comma or period is followed by one space.
Use brackets to enclose a parenthetical element already within parentheses.
Use a colon after a statement introducing a list but not when a verb precedes the listing.
The petroglyphs carried a variety of motifs: single parallel lines, wavy or zigzag lines, dot designs and circles.
The grave goods included an iron knife, a pair of metal earrings, a bronze ring and several iron nails.
Use a colon after a statement followed by a closely related explanation or illustration.
Use a comma to set off words and phrases as well as after long introductory adverbial or participial phrases.
Use a comma before 'and', 'but', 'nor' and 'or' when they join two independent clauses, but not when the second clause does not contain a subject as well as a predicate.
Objects made of mica usually have fragile, weak edges, and the paper-thin layers can easily be broken off.
Objects made of mica are fragile and can be easily broken.
Use a comma to set off appositive words and phrases but not to separate restrictive expressions.
The diagnostic wares, Gray Luster and Gray Luster Channeled, were found in both levels.
Both levels contained the diagnostic wares Gray Luster and Gray Luster Channeled.
Use a comma between interdependent contrasting expressions.
Use a comma between coordinate adjective modifying the same noun (when 'and' can be placed between the adjectives without changing the meaning of the sentence).
Very dark, burnished finewares were found.
Use a comma to indicate the omission of an obvious word or phrase.
A surface survey showed the first site to be liberally covered with sherds; the second, less so.
Use commas to indicate coordinate phrases modifying the same noun.
Do not use a comma between essential clauses or after an essential infinitive phase.
Use a dash to emphasis appositive expressions in a sentence that has other internal punctuation.
Use a dash to indicate an abrupt change in thought or in sentence structure.
There should be no space on either side of a dash.
Do not overuse the dash.
Use parenthesis around explanatory, nonessential material used within a sentence for instance to enclose references, directions, sources of information or to enclose the translation of a foreign word of phrase.
Use a semicolon between independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction.
Almost half of the used artifacts had preserved bulbs of percussion; more than half had truncated bulbs.
Use a semicolon between elements in a listing where there are commas within the elements.
Use a semicolon before conjunctive adverbs such as 'therefore', 'however' or 'nevertheless' connecting two independent clauses.
If corrosion is advanced, the lead will have cracks on the surface and in the underlying metal; therefore, it will crack and fragment easily.
If longer than three lines, quotations are set off from the text by indenting the text and leaving extra space above and below. Do not use quotation marks. A quotation should be followed by its source in brackets.
Brief quotations are kept within the text and set off with quotation marks. The quotation should be followed by its source in brackets.
Use three dots to indicate where part of the quotation has been omitted. Use brackets to contain inserted material.
A comma and period are placed within the quotation marks, a colon and semicolon outside.
American spellings are always used except where not possible, as in book titles or quotations.
Diacritical marks must be used where necessary.
Circa is used with dates, not distances or measurements. Use 'approximately', 'about', 'around', 'nearly' or 'roughly' instead.
Tables are numbered consecutively within each chapter. The table number is not followed by a period. Table titles are capitalized and are not followed by a period.